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Review Article: The Ancient Biological Principle of the Retrograde Cellular Immortalization

Joseph G. Sinkovics*

The primordial RNA/DNA complex possessed an inherent faculty for the protection of the cellular life forms from death due to exposure to physicochemical and biological intrusions. The proof for it is the survival and the close to the limitless expansion of the cellular life forms, as casted against the violent history of this planet. A long list of elementary pathways was used alternatingly by the primordial cellular life forms for the ontogenesis of their progeny, acquisition of their immune defenses, and their survival in grave distress. The ancient faculties were preserved and further evolved when diploblastic life forms have become large bilaterally organized triploblastic multi-cellular communities (including Homo). The original ultimate bioengineer RNA/DNA complex preserved and further evolved its ancient faculty for exemption from senescence, by duplicating in young age (a semblance of immortality), especially in unicellular life forms. In single cells of multi-cellular eukaryotic life forms, these inherent capabilities dominantly involve anti-apoptosis, autophagy with recovery, and somatic driver mutations, all of these resulting in accelerated mitoses. These primordial faculties may be re-activated and re-expressed in bilateral triploblastic macro-organisms occupying top positions in the evolutionary ladder (Homo). In these hosts, these faculties were placed under the control of an extensive inhibitory network. The origin of such a network is already detectable in the dictyostelia amoeba in the form of the retinoblastoma protein regulating the cell divisions of its host.

This article distinguishes between those reactive processes, which were induced by external physicochemical and biological initiators, and thus evoke strong defensive reactions (which often may fail), and those that were internally commenced in some selected single cells of multi-cellular hosts by ancient retroviral genomic inserts incorporated into the recipient genomes. These latter processes are capable of switching off all specifically directed immune defences and even turn them into stimulatory forces within the internally transformed cells. In addition, these transformed cells receive full biochemical support that their hosts render to them via fibroblasts and macrophages, so altered already in the initially shared tumor/host microenvironments. This faculty inherently inscribed in the original RNA/DNA complecti and recurrent in highly evolved life forms is hereby referred to as 'retrograde cellular immortalization'. It is clinically diagnosed as oncogenesis.

Cite this Article: Sinkovics JG. The Ancient Biological Principle of the Retrograde Cellular Immortalization. Open J Biotechnol Bioeng Res. 2017;1(1): 006-014.

Published: 30 May 2017

Research Article: Effects of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration and Water Content on Direct Transesterification of Physarum polycephalum for Biodiesel Production

Hanh TM. Tran*, Benjamas Cheirsilp, Yasmi Louhasakul and Steven L. Stephenson

The macroscopic trophic stage (plasmodium) of P. polycephalum lacks cell walls and produces a considerably high amount of biomass, which contains about 10% lipids and 95% of these lipids are triglycerides. The objectives of this research were first to evaluate the direct transesterification of P. polycephalum plasmodium into biodiesel and then to study the effects of HCl concentration and moisture content on this process. Two-step transesterification of dried plasmodium resulted in a Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) content of 105 mg. Direct transesterification of dried plasmodium yielded maximum FAME content (46 mg) at a low volume of 37% HCl (0.3 mL/0.1 g dried plasmodium) with a water content of 56.5%. To determine whether this effect came from the difference in HCl concentration or water content, additional experiments were carried out. Different HCl volumes were used whereas final water content was adjusted to be the same as 80%. FAME content increased when increasing the HCl volume from 0.3 to 0.7 mL/0.1 g dried plasmodium, but with a water content of 80% the maximum FAME content obtained was only 31.0 mg. Direct transesterification of wet biomass (with a moisture content of 80%) was then tested. The maximum FAME content obtained was 39.2 mg at 0.7 mL HCl/0.1 g dried plasmodium and a final water content of 87.4%. This indicated that water content and HCL volume interactively affected the FAME yield. Remarkably, direct transesterification of fresh plasmodium with a moisture content of about 80% yielded the highest FAME content (50 mg).

Cite this Article: Tran HTM, Cheirsilp B, Louhasakul Y, Stephenson SL. Effects of Hydrochloric Acid Concentration and Water Content on Direct Transesterification of Physarum polycephalum for Biodiesel Production. Open J Biotechnol Bioeng Res. 2017;1(1): 001-005.

Published: 22 March 2017

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