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Review Article: Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Leaf on Blood Glucose, Kidney Functions and Hematological Parameters of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Rafiu AA1* and Luka CD2

Diabetes mellitus as reported by is a complex disorder that affects metabolism in humans and other subjects, affecting several organs in the system. Management of diabetes is challenging and its treatments are often associated with side effects as scientist is increasingly demanding for natural products with antidiabetic activity and fewer side effects [1,2]. In this study, the effect of aqueous Ipomoea batatas leaf extract was carried out in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats (55 mg/ kg) body wt. for 28days. The continuous administration of extract from 400 mg/ kg body wt. for 28days significantly (P ? 0.05) reversed the effects on blood glucose which was initially increased. There was a significant decrease (P ? 0.05) in urea, creatinine, and uric which show kidney impairment following induction of the diabetogen. There was significant increase (P ? 0.05) in the PCV, Hb, RBC, Neutrophils, Basophils, and Monocytes. While Wbc, platelets, lymphocytes, and Eosinophils were significantly (P ? 0.05) decreased. The study therefore reveals that aqueous Ipomoea batatas leaf extract can be used in hyperglycemia management as well as in improvement in kidney and blood hematological functions.
Keywords: Hyperglycemia; Insulin; Pancreas; High blood sugar; Diabetogen

Cite this Article: Rafiu AA, Luka CD. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ipomoea batatas Leaf on Blood Glucose, Kidney Functions And Hematological Parameters Of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2018;4(1): 004-009.

Published: 28 April 2018

Review Article: Role of One To One Education in Management of Glycemic Control

Alok Raghav1 and Prerna Singh2*

Diabetes is major healthcare concern worldwide with horrific repercussions. The disease can easily be prevented with just some awareness and efforts of people. Many suffer from this horrendous condition because of lack of knowledge about the disease. To end this, creating awareness of the disease and its effects on millions of people in the world is critically important. In this article, we will outline the importance of these efforts, discuss the barriers in way of awareness and education, and highlight some important models in this arena. As an integral part of a diabetes prevention and control program strong awareness-raising and health promotion strategies are needed.

Cite this Article: Raghav A, Singh P. Role of One To One Education in Management of Glycemic Control. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2018;4(1): 001-003.

Published: 16 April 2018

Research Article: Effect of Uncontrolled Diabetic Dyslipidemia in the Prevalence of Sub-Clinic Left-Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Western Region of the Republic of Macedonia

Atila Rexhepi*, Ylber Jani, Bekim Pocesta, Sotiraq Xhunga, Artur Serani, Fatmir Ferati, Dali Lala, Agim, Arben Mirto and Ahmet Kamberi

Background: Data relating to the influence of uncontrolled diabetic dyslipidemia in the prevalence of sub-clinic Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (T2DM), in absence of coronary disease and high blood pressure disease, in relation to our region are scarce.
Objective: We tried to determine the influence of uncontrolled diabetic dyslipidemia in the prevalence of sub-clinic LVDD in patients with type 2 diabetes in absence of coronary disease and high blood pressure disease in Western Region of the Republic of Macedonia.
Methods: This is a multicenter, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Prospectively tested were 400 participants. The study was conducted at outpatient in Secondary Health Care Clinics in 8 towns in the western region of the Republic of Macedonia. Study participants were selected among secondary care patient, who were receiving ongoing care for diabetes mellitus type 2 and dyslipidemia, during one year. We recorded information from all healthcare encounters during one year.
Results: Prevalence of sub-clinic LVDD grade 1, among diabetic patients with uncontrolled dyslipidemia were significantly increased in comparation with diabetic patients with controlled dyslipidemia (47.5% vs. 22.5%; p = 0.0003, respectively). The overall frequency of sub-clinic LVDD grade 1 in study population was (35%; p = 0.000). There is significant association between sub-clinic LVDD and uncontrolled diabetic dyslipidemia (OR = 2.91; 95% CI 1.89 - 4.47), females (OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.269 - 2.921), age (OR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.002 - 1.159), BMI (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.109 - 1.387), LVM (OR = 2.554; 95% CI 1.289 - 5.021), duration of T2DM (OR = 2.88;95% CI 2.182 - 3.685), uncontrolled glycaemia (OR = 2.55;95% CI 1.794 - 3.675).
Conclusions: The prevalence of sub-clinic LVDD in absence of coronary disease and high blood pressure disease is higher among patients with uncontrolled diabetic dyslipidemia than among patients with controlled diabetic dyslipidemia in the western region of the Republic of Macedonia and seem to be significantly associated with demographic and clinical parameters: age, gender, BMI, LVM, duration of diabetes and glycemic control.

Cite this Article: Rexhepi A, Jani Y, Pocesta B, Xhunga S, Serani A, et al. Effect of Uncontrolled Diabetic Dyslipidemia in the Prevalence of Sub-Clinic Left-Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Western Region of the Republic of Macedonia. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 036-042.

Published: 15 December 2017

Research Article: Association between Calcium Intake and Dysglycemia in Adolescents

Samanta de S. Mattos1 and Denise T.Giannini*

Objective: To evaluate dietary calcium intake and its relationship with anthropometric measures, calcium metabolism and glucose profile in adolescents.
Methods: Cross-sectional study of the observational character composed of 106 adolescents of both sexes. The anthropometric measures evaluated were weight, height and waist circumference. Nutritional status was classified by body mass index by age and sex. Dietary intake was assessed by the food registry 3-day and data were calculated using Avanutri® Software. For the evaluation of glucose and calcium metabolism, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, serum calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone.
Results: Adolescents who consumed below 302 mg/ day of calcium had a significantly higher mean of glycated hemoglobin (mean: 5.7% Vs. 5.3%; p=0.02) and insulin (mean: 29.8 μU/mL Vs 21.7 μU/mL; p= 0.05). It was found that the mean parathyroid hormone was significantly higher in adolescents who consumed below the 50th percentile of calcium 45.2 Vs 37.7 (p < 0.001). In overweight adolescents who consumed below 302 mg/ day presented higher values of body mass index (34.2 km/m2 Vs 30.2 km/m2; p = 0.03) and a negative correlation between parathyroid hormone and calcium(r = 0.28; p = 0.01).
Conclusions: Adolescents who consumed below 302 mg/day of calcium had higher glycated hemoglobin and insulin and an increase in parathyroid hormone. In overweight, adolescents who consumed below 302 mg/ day of calcium had higher adiposity and a negative correlation with parathyroid hormone.
Keywords: Dietetics; Calcium; Insulin; Adolescents

Cite this Article: de S. Mattos S, Giannini DT. Association between Calcium Intake and Dysglycemia in Adolescents. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 029-035.

Published: 24 July 2017

Research Article: Effect of High-Fat-Diets on Iron Homeostasis and Tissue Iron Deposition in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats

Buthaina Alkhatib*, Hayder Al-Domi and Bashaer Abu Irmaileh

Background: Obesity has been associated with anemia of chronic disease and it may also promote iron deficiency causing dysmetabolic iron overload.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine iron homeostasis on serum and tissue after feeding rats with various high-fat-diets for 6 and 10 weeks.
Methods: Eight weeks Sprague - Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three main dietary groups: Group (1): rats were fed the High Saturated Fat Diet Group (HSFD; n = 12), group (2): rats were fed the High Monounsaturated Fat Diet Group (HMUSFD; n = 12) and group (3): rats were fed Normal Fat Diet Group (NFD) (n = 12) for 6 and 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected; liver and Retroperitoneal Adipose Tissues (RPAT) was removed. Serum iron parameters and the total iron quantification in tissue were measured.
Results: Findings after 6 weeks demonstrated that no significant elevation in all tested iron parameters in serum and tissue in HFDs fed groups as compared to NFD controls. On the other hand, feeding rats with different HFDs for 10 weeks leading to increase serum ferritin significantly as compared to NFD, and liver iron content was increased significantly in rats that were fed HSFD and NFD (178.16 ± 7.78, 168.67 ± 5.42 ng/ mg, respectively) as compared to HMUFD (123.78 ± 6.57ng/ mg)(p ? 0.05).
Conclusion: The effect of the high-fat-diets on iron homeostasis is time dependent. However, the type of dietary fat that introduce will affect tissue iron deposition.
Keywords: High-fat-diets; Iron homeostasis; Tissue iron deposition

Cite this Article: Alkhatib B, Al-Domi H, Irmaileh BA. Effect of High-Fat-Diets on Iron Homeostasis and Tissue Iron Deposition in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 024-028.

Published: 17 July 2017

Research Article: Biochemical Assessment of Bone Biomarkers in Diabetic Rats

Renata Dessordi*

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by a disorder of the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. Studies have shown that this illness deregulate the activity of osteoblasts that play a role in osteoporosis. Thus the objective this study was to evaluate the influence of diet supplemented with calcium, phosphorus, vitamin E and zinc in bone metabolism related biochemical parameters for 30 days. We evaluate the possible bone changes during the development of complications generated by diabetes for histological analysis and biochemical parameters, bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, total calcium, ionized calcium and phosphorus in the serum of diabetic rats. The study consisted of 30 animals divided into groups, being a diabetic group fed with rations without supplementation (DN; n = 10), another group fed with ration supplemented (DS; n = 10), and a third made up of control animals (CN; n = 10). From the analysis, it observed that there was no significant difference in phosphorus concentrations, total calcium, ionized calcium and magnesium in the serum of animals for all groups (p > 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase enzyme showed significantly higher levels for DN (390 U/I) and DS (592 U/I) animals compared with the CN group (p = 0,001). There was no significant difference in the enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase enzyme tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase for all groups (p = 2,41). The histological analysis showed that was not observed significant changes microscopically for the period of 5 days, and regarding the period of 30 days. Thus, the results suggest that supplementation with minerals in combination with vitamin E has not been able to improve the biochemical profile related to bone health and was not sufficient to preserve the integrity of the hematopoietic tissue.

Cite this Article: Dessordi R. Biochemical Assessment of Bone Biomarkers in Diabetic Rats. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 017-023.

Published: 04 May 2017

Review Article: Updates of Diabetes Mellitus: A Concern for Public Health

Alok Raghav*, Jamal Ahmad, Saba Noor, Maaz Ozair, Khursheed Alam, Brijesh Kumar Mishra, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan and Sumit Kumar Singh

Diabetes mellitus is increasingly becoming a prime chronic threat and burden around the globe. This requires a transformation in healthcare priorities in epidemiology and impact of this disease in all regions to aware populations about the reactions of hyperglycemia and induced complications to decrease prevalence rate. A systematic literature review of prestigious papers on diabetes mellitus and its associated complications around the globe based on the data published. The recent classification of diabetes and its associated complications are reported. Current diabetes prevalence rate around the globe is 8.3% that further increases in the year 2030. The classification criteria of various international bodies' efforts to improve the definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is an important and chronic public health problem around the globe. Variations are observed around the world contributing to rising in prevalence rate. The current and past scenario of classification and diagnosis was shown to improve public concern.

Cite this Article: Raghav A, Ahmad J, Noor S, Ozair M, Alam K, et al. Updates of Diabetes Mellitus: A Concern for Public Health. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 008-016.

Published: 17 February 2017

Research Article: Alcohol Alters the Insulin Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Myocardium

Nassrene Y. Elmadhun, Ashraaf A. Sabe, Antonio D. Lassaletta, Louis. M. Chu, Frank W. Sellke*

Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that swine supplemented with alcohol had improved insulin signaling in the heart. However, the effect of alcohol on insulin signaling in the setting of metabolic syndrome in the heart remains unknown. We developed a follow-up study to evaluate the effects of alcohol on ischemic myocardium in animals with metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods: 26 Yorkshire swine were fed a hypercaloric diet for 4 weeks, followed the placement of an ameroid constrictor to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Postoperatively, the animals were split into three groups: hypercholesterolemic diet alone (n = 9), the hypercholesterolemic diet with vodka (n = 9), and hypercholesterolemic diet with wine (n = 8) for 7 weeks. Animals underwent intravenous dextrose challenge prior to euthanasia and tissue collection.
Results: Alcohol supplementation decreased glucose tolerance compared to the control. Alcohol also decreased expression of pro-insulin signaling proteins AKT, pAKT, AMPK, pMTOR and increased expression of GSK3β, which decreases insulin sensitivity. There was also increased GLUT1 and GLUT4 immunostaining in the myocardium of animals supplemented with alcohol compared to the control.
Conclusions: Both HCVOD and HCW groups demonstrate glucose intolerance and aberrant insulin signaling with increased expression of pro-insulin signaling proteins down-regulation of insulin signaling activators. The mixed signals may result in the observed insulin insensitivity. Moderate alcohol consumption seems to have a complex and negative effect on insulin signaling in ischemic myocardium.

Cite this Article: Elmadhun NY, Sabe AA, Lassaletta AD, LM AD. Alcohol Alters the Insulin Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Myocardium. J Res Diabetes Metab. 2017;3(1): 001-007.

Published: 15 February 2017

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