Volume 1 Issue 1

Research Article: Legal Protection for Athletes To Prevent Injuries Legislative Regulation in Hungary

Tunde Szabo* and Miklos Stocker

Background: Professional athlete's often risk sports injuries during their career in the hope of achieving better results. Because of the rising expectations as regards competitive sports, the number of sports injuries and sports accidents is increasing together with the number of injuries involving permanent damage. A significant proportion of such injuries could be prevented by providing appropriate information, with professional competence and with caution, and the consequences of lasting damage to athlete's health could be reduced significantly.
Hungary is a successful nation in sports, and it is amongst the world leaders in the field of professional sports. Among further possibilities of developing sports, legislative regulation is one of the paths to follow. In Hungarian sport, in the future an even greater emphasis should be laid on making sure that responsible specialists with appropriate skills supervise high-risk sports and professional athletes. These ambitions should be supported with a legislative background.
Methods and Results: The Ministry of State for Sport carried out a study about the internal regulations of the National Associations of Olympic Sports, with special regard to regulations concerning sports medicine and the prevention of sports injuries. We followed a case based approach, where we created case studies about successful Hungarian Olympic Sports and Team Sports. From the 16 strategic Olympic Sports and 5 spectacle Team Sports we created 12 cases. Cases were based on a semi-structured case interview and the submission of semi-structured questionnaire. In this paper we introduce these cases and the analysis based on them. According to the cases we could identify the gap of the ideal prevention based legal protection and the actual Hungarian legislation and the practice of Hungarian National Sport Associations Conclusion After evaluating these results, the Hungarian Ministry of State for Sport and the Hungarian Government decided that in the amendment of the Sports Act entering into force on 1 January 2017 it shall include a legal obligation for national associations to prepare ethical and child protection regulations, as well as sports medicine regulations protecting and advocating sport athlete's interests, within 45 days after the amendment enters into force.

Cite this Article: Szabo T, Stocker M. Legal Protection for Athletes To Prevent Injuries Legislative Regulation in Hungary. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(1): 024-030.

Published: 06 September 2017

Research Article: The Effects of Aging on Electromechanical Delay: A Comparison between Karate Athletes and Non-Athletes

Antonio M. VencesBrito*, Mario A. Rodrigues-Ferreira, and Marco Branco

Normal aging in humans is associated with a progressive decline in biological functions that affect motor performance. This study intended to analyze the effects of aging on electromechanical delay during the mae-geri kick performance. Forty-six males were divided into three groups according to age and sports practice: 9 veteran karate practitioners aged between 50 and 63 years (VetK), 21 young karate practitioners (YgK) and 16 non-karate practitioners aged between 18 and 35 years old. Electromechanical delay was defined as the time interval between the onset of the electric activity of a muscle and the beginning of joint movement. The statistical analysis was performed with One-Way Analysis of Variance and Turkey HSD Post-Hoc (SPSS, version 17.0). Rectus femoris EMD was found to be significantly longer in VetK, suggesting that aging has a negative impact on the neuromuscular activity and contractile capacity of this muscle.
Keywords: Electromyography; Karate; Combat sports

Cite this Article: VencesBrito AM, Rodrigues-Ferreira MA, Branco M. The Effects of Aging on Electromechanical Delay: A Comparison between Karate Athletes and Non-Athletes. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(1): 017-023.

Published: 05 September 2017

Research Article: Effects of 12 Weeks Aerobic Training in Hypoxia on Body Composition and Fat Metabolism in Obese Adults

Lee JH* and Kim CK

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic training in hypoxia on fat metabolism during resting and exercising and the body composition of people with obesity (body fat = 25% for men and = 30% for women). 18 males and females were randomly assigned to aerobic training under hypoxic (13.5% O2, n = 9) or normoxic (20.9% O2, n = 9) conditions. Subjects trained thrice weekly for 60 min over 12 weeks at 60-75% maximum heart rate (HRmax). Prior to and after training, body composition, venous blood parameters, and blood pressure were determined. Body fat percentage in the hypoxia group was significantly decreased, while it remained unchanged in the normoxia group. After 12 weeks, plasma albumin levels in the hypoxia group increased significantly immediately following exercise, when compared to resting, whereas it was decreased significantly in the normoxia group. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and leptin were unchanged in both groups. When compared to resting after training, Hematocrit (Hct) and Hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the hypoxia group significantly increased immediately following exercise, whereas levels remained unchanged in the normoxia group. In the hypoxia group Red Blood Cells (RBC) increased immediately following exercise, when compared to resting both before and after training. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) in the blood of the hypoxia group was increased significantly, whereas it remained unchanged in the normoxia group. Thus, aerobic training in hypoxia reduces body fat and increases HDL-C more greatly than training in normoxia under the same exercise conditions.
Keywords: Aerobic; Hypoxia; Fat oxidation; Obesity; Body mass index

Cite this Article: Lee JH, Kim CK. Effects of 12 Weeks Aerobic Training in Hypoxia on Body Composition and Fat Metabolism in Obese Adults. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(1): 010-016.

Published: 05 September 2017

Research Article: Does the Nervous System Constrain Lower Extremity Force Output of the Uninvolved Limb during Running in Patients after anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

Hackney James M*, Wade Michael G and Larson Christopher M

This study was designed to test whether Maximum Vertical Ground Reaction Force (MVGRF) of the nonsurgical limb of patients after ACLR could be predicted from the MVGRF of the surgical limb while running with a stiff surface underfoot. We measured the MVGRF of 6 patients who were 5 to 14 weeks post ACLR while they ran for 60 seconds in shoes modified with stiff, 1 cm. thick outsoles. The MVGRF measured from the patients' surgical limbs accounted for .952 of the variance of their non-surgical limbs. One explanation for this finding is that the central nervous system constrained the MVGRF of the non-surgical side in order to maintain an equivalent vertical forces during gait and prevent asymmetry.

Cite this Article: James MH, Michael GW, Christopher ML. Does the Nervous System Constrain Lower Extremity Force Output of the Uninvolved Limb during Running in Patients after anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(1): 006-009.

Published: 05 September 2017

Research Article: The Effects of Aerobic Exercise at Hypoxic Condition during 6 Weeks on Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Lipid Level in Obese Women

Hun-Young Park and Kiwon Lim*

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of aerobic exercise at hypoxic condition during 6 weeks on body composition, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and blood lipid level in 30 to 60 years old women. Thirty five obese women above 30 in body mass index and %body fat were volunteered to participate in the study as participants and were divided into three groups such as 20.9% O2 normoxic training group (n = 12), 16.5% O2 hypoxic training group (n = 11), and 14.5% O2 training group (n = 12). The six weeks of training consisted 30 min of treadmill and cycle ergometer exercise, respectively (total 1 hour). Exercise intensity was maximal heart rate of 75% that developed Miyashita in 1985. Exercise frequency was 1 hour a day, 5 days a week, during 6 weeks. As a result, there was a significant decrease (p<.05) in body fat mass and percentage of body fat in all groups. The reduction rate of body fat mass and percent of body fat were larger in the both hypoxic training group compared to the normoxic training group. Therefore, body weight was significantly decreased (p<.05) only in 14.5% O2 hypoxic training group.Both hypoxic training groups showed a greater decrease (p<.05) in blood pressure and pulse wave velocitythan normoxic training group. In addition, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a greater decrease (p<.05) in both hypoxic training group compared with normoxic training group. Based on these results, our study demonstrated that 16.5% O2 and 14.5% O2 hypoxic training had a positive effect and possibility of efficiency on body composition, blood pressure, arterial stiffness and blood lipid level in obese women compared with normoxic training.

Cite this Article: Park HY, Lim K. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise at Hypoxic Condition during 6 Weeks on Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Lipid Level in Obese Women. Int J Sports Sci Med. 2017;1(1): 001-005.

Published: 22 August 2017

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